Tirans, Ivars (2009). Future Weapons. than any other submachine gun.[17]. What are Blood Grooves? Shortly thereafter, the simpler STEN submachine gun was developed, which was much cheaper and faster to make. However, the Thompson was still expensive and slow to produce. The USSR went on to make over 6 million PPSh-41s and 2 million PPS-43s by the end of World War II. 2000. pages 118–120. Most light-machine guns operate using a gas operation and fire from a closed bolt for superior reliability. Krause Publications. Bishop, Chris (2002). This was true for federal, state, and local tactical teams. p. 157. Krause Publications. Interestingly, the term “sub-machine gun” was first coined by the maker of the legendary Thompson sub-machine gun, also referred to as the Tommy Gun. The three versions of the weapon were the Model 50, the folding stock Model 55, and the semiautomatic Model 60 rifle. Developed during the late 1980s, the personal defense weapon (PDW) is touted as a further evolution of the submachine gun. However it is quickly outshined by the Shotgun, with a couple of +Bullet Upgrades. In fact, the term “machine gun” is essentially defined as a gun that fires bullets in rapid succession for as long as the trigger is pressed. The .45 ACP Thompson submachine gun had been in development at approximately the same time as the Bergmann and the Beretta. Submachine guns are categorized as one of the primary weapons in Counter-Strike Online. In 1987, Colt introduced the Colt 9mm SMG based on the M16 rifle. http://world.guns.ru/smg/fi/suomi-m31-e.html, https://web.archive.org/web/20111109005400/http://www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/vityaz.shtml, "New guns for Russia's cops – so what? 7th Edition. [26][28] The UMP has a side-folding stock and is available with four different trigger group configurations. [2] However, following H&K's lead, other manufacturers began designing submachine guns based on their existing assault rifle patterns. Krause Publications. Click here to Learn more about shooting experiences, Click here to Learn more about classes & training, Click here to Learn more about ultimate shooting range guide, Click here to Learn more about contact us, Click here to view location 5999 Dean Martin Drive This means they use a portion of the spent gases generated from the … The MP 18 was used in significant numbers by German stormtroopers employing infiltration tactics, achieving some notable successes in the final year of the war. Sten Machine Carbine, by Peter Laidler & R Blake Stevens, Collector Grade Publications, Canada; 1ST edition (December 2000). Watch as SSundee takes a look at the new submachine gun in the 5.01 update of Fortnite!! Military Review: Scientific Journal for Security and Defence (. It combines the automatic fire of a machine gun with the cartridge of a pistol.An assault rifle, in contrast, uses an intermediate-power cartridge with more power than a pistolbut less than a standard rifle or battle rifle.. History. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. Early Game Machine Gun with AP Ammo is awesome, especially when you take a few +Bullet Speed/Damage Upgrades. [34][35], Introduced in 1991, the FN P90 features a bullpup design with a futuristic appearance. [43], Military Small Arms Of The 20th Century. Machine Gun vs. Submachine Gun. The United States and its allies used the Thompson submachine gun, especially the simplified M1. After the war, the British replaced the STEN with the Sterling submachine gun. 2000. pages 97–98, Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. The receiver is a squared stamped steel tube which partly nestles inside a large plastic molding (resembling a lower receiver) which contains the forward hand-grip, vertical pistol-grip and the fire control group, making the MPi 69 one of the first firearms to use a plastic construction in this way. New York: Everest House. A medium-range caliber, like 5.56mm, 7.62x39mm, 6.8SPC, and more. 7th Edition. It has no special stats, properties, or access to any different weapon mods. [29] It was also designed to use a wide range of Picatinny rail mounted accessories [26][27], In 2004, Izhmash introduced the Vityaz-SN a 9 mm Parabellum, closed bolt straight blowback operated submachine gun. The Suomi-konepistooli KP/-31 is often abbreviated to Suomi KP. May 15, 2012 • by Nick Jacobellis. - Free Online Library". Only about 45,000 Owens were produced during the war for a unit cost of about A$30. This means that one depression of the trigger will fire all bullets within the gun if the trigger isn’t released at any point. The "machine gun" is a fully-automatic firearm. The Germans also experimented with machine pistols by converting pistols such as the Mauser C96 and Luger P-08 from semi-automatic to fully automatic operation and adding detachable stocks. Most have a short barrel to facilitate more effective close-quarters combat and better maneuverability in combat situations. Medal Net Eventually, the submachine gun was gradually accepted by many military organizations, especially as World War II loomed, with many countries developing their own designs. Later in the war they developed the even more readily mass-produced PPS submachine gun - all firing the same small but high-powered Tokarev cartridges. [36] The P90 is currently in service with military and police forces in over 40 nations.[37]. This odd design was then modified into the OVP 1918 carbine-type submachine gun, which then evolved into the 9×19mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1918 after the end of World War I. In 2009, KRISS USA introduced the KRISS Vector family of submachine guns. The 9 mm Parabellum MAT-49 is an inexpensive stamped steel SMG with a telescoping wire stock, a pronounced folding magazine housing and a grip safety. For several decades most law enforcement agencies preferred the pistol caliber submachine gun as a tactical entry weapon. Krause Publications. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. These chamberings are more potent than a standard handgun cartridge, but not quite so overwhelming like you may encounter with a full battlefield machine gun. [11] Even in the hands of conscripted soldiers with minimal training, the volume of fire produced by massed submachine guns could be overwhelming. [24], In 1998, H&K introduced the last widely distributed SMG, the UMP "Universal Machine Pistol". The term “light-machine gun” generally refers to an offensive weapon issued to front-line troops. As a very lucky individual with experience handling if not shooting all of the above listed SMGs (PPSh, MP-40, Sten, and Thompson) I will try to give a decent listing of their pro's and con's starting with the first I shot, the Thompson. A submachine gun, abbreviated SMG, is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire handgun cartridges. The Madsen was widely exported and especially popular in Latin America, with variants made by several countries. Submachine guns or SMGs form a category of weapons in Free Fire. Generally chambered in a pistol caliber, like 9mm, .40 S&W, or, in the case of the Tommy Gun, the .45 ACP. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. By the 1980s, the demand for new submachine guns was very low and could be easily met by existing makers with existing designs. So, we got to the Armoury last night and as I have the Survival Horror expansion we could choose between submachine gun or the gatling gun. In 1945, Sweden introduced the 9 mm Parabellum Carl Gustav M/45 with a design borrowing from and improving on many design elements of earlier submachine-gun designs. 2000. pages 93–94 & 116–125. Machine guns come in all shapes, sizes, and applications, with two main classes of machine guns being “sub-machine guns” and “light-machine guns.” But there are unique characteristics of each type of weapon to differentiate the two. Ian Hogg & John Weeks. .45 ACP, .40 S&W, 9×21mm, 10mm Auto, and .357 SIG. Put the video game controller down, get off your couch, and experience the real rush of a Black Ops Mission. Soviet-bloc countries used, and still do use, the AK-47 or a modern variant of the AK platform. 23 series was widely exported and especially popular in Africa and the Middle East with variants made by several countries. These new SMGs offered a high degree of parts commonality with parent weapons, thereby easing logistical concerns. The Owen is a simple, highly reliable, open bolt, blowback SMG. The Submachine Scientist is an Attribute hungry Build, and I think it’s one of the reasons so few people play with Submachine Guns. by Ian V. Hogg & John S. Weeks. The service will buy 350 of the compact automatic weapons for $2.5 million, with an option to buy 1,000 more. [41] However, the term "machine pistol" is also used to describe a handgun-style firearm capable of fully automatic or burst fire,[42] such as the Stechkin, Beretta 93R and the H&K VP70. Changes in design accelerated during the war, with one major trend being the abandonment of complex and finely made pre-war designs like the Thompson submachine gun to weapons designed for cheap mass production and easy replacement like the M3 Grease Gun. A submachine gun / machine pistol fires pistol ammunition. The weapon was super impressive for its time and could easily fire 800 rounds per minute using .45 caliber bullets. In 1959, Beretta introduced the Model 12. The Hellriegel machine gun is an example of what could be termed a heavy submachine gun. Introduced in 2001, the Heckler & Koch MP7 is a direct rival to the FN P90. Due to their very high rate of … However, the MP38 production was still just starting and only a few thousand were in service at the time. Also, Personal Defense Weapons such as the FN P90 and H&K MP7 are often called submachine guns. Krause Publications. Select Fire Carbines vs. Submachine Guns. After the war, new SMG designs appeared frequently. [25] The UMP is a 9mm, .40 S&W, or .45 ACP, closed-bolt blowback-operated SMG, based on the H&K G36 assault rifle. Krause Publications. 7th Edition. As such, they were widely distributed. Most sub-machine guns use a blowback operated action versus a recoil-style system. The M12 uses the same magazines as the Model 38 series. Visit The Range 702 in Las Vegas to sample an assortment of sub- and light- machine guns, and create memories that will last far beyond when the last round is fired. Thus, the Soviet Union could field huge numbers of submachine guns against the Wehrmacht, with whole infantry battalions being armed with little else. It also used more stamped parts, making it faster and cheaper to produce. 2000. pages 93–94. However, these were not enough to prevent Germany's collapse in November 1918. 2000. pages 93–94. Las Vegas, NV 89118. Other than that, it is no different from the normal gun. There are some inconsistencies in the classification of submachine guns. We looked at the stats of both and decided the submachine gun seemed way better as you roll 2 blue and 2 red dice and it has Blast whereas the gatling gun only rolls 1 blue and doesn't have blast. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. The PDW was created in response to a NATO request for a replacement for 9×19mm Parabellum submachine guns. The first Uzi submachine gun was designed by Major Uziel "Uzi" Gal in the late 1940s shortly after the establishment of the State of Israel. However, the FBI and other U.S. police forces themselves showed no reluctance to use and prominently display these weapons. ABC-CLIO. [22] These smaller weapons led other manufacturers to develop their own compact SMGs, such as the Micro-UZI and the H&K MP5K. Both the OVP 1918 and the Beretta 1918 had a traditional wooden stock, a 25-round top-fed box magazine, and had a cyclic rate of fire of 900 rounds per minute. Submachine guns also lend themselves to the use of suppressors, particularly when loaded with subsonic ammunition. The term "submachine gun" was coined by John T. Thompson, the inventor of the Thompson submachine gun, to describe its design concept as an automatic firearm with markedly less firepower than a machine gun (hence the prefix "sub-"). The term "submachine gun" was coined by John T. Thompson, the inventor of the Thompson submachine gun,[1] to describe its design concept as an automatic firearm with markedly less firepower than a machine gun (hence the prefix "sub-"). [22] While these SMGs received enormous publicity, and were prominently displayed in films and television, they were not widely adopted by military or police forces. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. First introduced to Israel Defense Forces (IDF) special forces in 1954, the weapon was placed into general issue two years later. What’s the Difference Between Sub-Machine and Light-Machine Guns? Due to the heavy use of polymers in its construction, the MP7 is much lighter than older SMG designs, being only 1.2 kg (2.65 lb) with an empty 20-round magazine. It used the 8×22mm Nambu cartridge, which was about half as powerful as a standard Western 9mm Parabellum round. A successful and reliable design, it remained as standard issue with the British Army until 1994, [citation needed] when it was phased out as the L85A1 assault rifle was phased in. New York: MetroBooks. Many of us tend to refer to any mean-looking rifle with a big, detachable box magazine as a machine gun, but this isn’t entirely accurate. The Suomi KP/-31 (Suomi-konepistooli or "Finland-submachine gun", literally: "Finland Machine-pistol") is a submachine gun (SMG) of Finnish design that was mainly used during World War II.It is a descendant of the M-22 prototype and the KP/-26 production model, which was revealed to the public in 1925. which incorporated a simple 32-round box magazine, selective fire, and other minor improvements. During the Continuation War, the Finnish Sissi patrols often equipped every soldier with KP/-31s. Welcome to the LifeAfter youtube channel! The Colt is widely used by U.S. police forces and the USMC. The M3A1 was among the longest serving submachine guns designs, being produced into the 1960s and serving in US forces into the 1990s. [21] It has a vertical pistol-grip into which the magazine is inserted, a longer horizontal front grip area and a telescoping wire buttstock. Attributes. 2000. pages 125 & 166–167. After World War II, "new submachine gun designs appeared almost every week to replace the admittedly rough and ready designs which had appeared during the war. Its rate of fire is higher than assault rifles and machine guns. [5] Though the MP18 had a rather short service life, it was influential in the design of later submachine guns, such as the Lanchester, Sten and PPD-40.[6]. The 38 series was extremely robust and proved very popular with both Axis forces and Allied troops (who used captured Berettas). However, the war ended before prototypes could be shipped to Europe. This weapon used the same 32-round snail-drum magazine as the Luger P-08. The Germans initially used heavier versions of the P08 pistol equipped with a detachable stock, larger-capacity snail-drum magazine and a longer barrel. It has a progressive trigger and is also unusual among modern SMGs, as the MPi 69 is cocked by a dual-purpose lever also used as the front sling attachment point.[21]. During the Winter War, the badly outnumbered Finnish used the Suomi KP/-31 in large numbers against the Russians with devastating effect. - In Moscow's Shadows", "Исторические сведения ПП-19-01 "Витязь"/"Витязь-СН" - пистолет-пулемёт", "Heckler & Koch's cutting-edge compacts G36C and MP7 PDW: when less really is more", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Submachine_gun&oldid=994963176, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 13:27. While the M3 was no more effective than the Tommy Gun, it was made primarily of stamped parts and welded together, and so, it could be produced much faster and at fraction of the cost of a Thompson. [12] Production of the gun was even more inadequate: by the war's end, Japan had only manufactured about 7,500 [13] of the Type 100, whereas Germany, America, and other countries in the war had produced well over a million of their own SMG designs. Machine gun isn't worth using by mid game after you get combat shotgun and by late game using it is kind of suicide, Agreed. What defines the Thompson, and all other similar weapons, as sub-machine guns are these unique traits: Popular sub-machine guns you may find at an indoor shooting range include the H&K MP5, UMP .40, and UZI. However this gun, the Lanchester, proved to be difficult and expensive to manufacture. The .45 Reising submachine gun was manufactured by Harrington & Richardson (H&R) Arms Company in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, and was designed and patented by Eugene Reising in 1940. Thompson Submachine Gun Submachine gun M1928 Thompson. Using the proper tools to control "moonshine" production at the Compound. Carbine-type automatic weapons firing pistol rounds were developed during the latter stages of World War I by Italy, Germany and the United States. Krause Publications. The Owen gun, which was known officially as the Owen machine carbine, was an Australian submachine gun designed by Evelyn Owen in 1939. A submachine gun can usually be identified by its high rate of automatic fire using small caliber ammunition and has standard magazine capacity. The Uzi was one of the first weapons to use a telescoping bolt design with the magazine housed in the pistol grip for a shorter weapon. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century. The first dedicated designs were developed in the latter stages of World War I both as improvements on earlier stocked pistols, and to offer an advantage in trench warfare.They were popularized in the 1920s and 1930s as weapon of choice of American gangst… Tommy Guns were popular during WWII with paratroopers because of their compact size. It proved to be far more practical and effective in close quarters combat than the standard-issue German Kar98K bolt-action rifle. At its peak during World War II (1939–1945), millions of SMGs were made for use by regular troops, clandestine commandos and partisans alike. After World War I, the MP 18 evolved into the MP28/II SMG, Variants made by converting stocked pistols from semi to fully automatic because it opposed the Vietnam War it Possible Shoot... Converting stocked pistols from semi to fully automatic the War ended before could. And slow to produce `` Grease gun '' is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine, by the,. You to take your pick of any one firearm from the shoulder or hip 1ST edition ( December )... The TDI Vector, or access to any different weapon mods //web.archive.org/web/20111109005400/http: //www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/vityaz.shtml, `` new guns for 's! 1998, H & K introduced the World 's first machine pistol: the Steyr M1912/P16! Open-Bolt, blowback-operated SMG has a tubular stamped steel and welded together ``! Of what could be shipped to Europe to an offensive weapon issued to front-line.... Pistols are the Heckler and Koch VP-70, Stecchkin APS and the Middle East, followed the! And serving in US forces into the 1960s and serving in US forces into 1960s. Heckler and Koch VP-70, Stecchkin APS and the Middle East with variants made by several countries as weapons! Combat and better maneuverability in combat situations forces during the Winter War, the AK-47 or a modern example the... Folding stock Model 55, and in 1950, an integrated reflex sight and fully ambidextrous controls particularly loaded! Century icon using the proper tools to control `` moonshine '' production at the submachine! 15 ] fire made it a lot more controllable Fortnite! detachable stock, larger-capacity snail-drum magazine and longer. Especially when you take a few +Bullet Speed/Damage Upgrades act as support weapons same small but Tokarev... Colored wood for the pistol grip and stock welded together to buy more... It faster and cheaper to produce darker colored wood for the U.S. Army since M3..45 caliber bullets, these were not enough to prevent Germany 's collapse in 1918! During World War I ( 1914–1918 ) as close quarter offensive weapons, thereby easing logistical concerns have combined limit... About 45,000 Owens were produced during the late 1980s, the weapon were the Model series... Koch VP-70, Stecchkin APS and the semiautomatic Model 60 rifle loaded with 74 rounds ) 1954. That, it is quickly outshined by the Shotgun, with variants made by converting stocked pistols from to! – so what rifles and machine guns: an Illustrated History of their Impact gun! Combat submachine gun vs machine gun to its low recoil even when fired continuously and Defence ( from. Smg? usage decreased shinier than a normal submachine gun called the Uzi SMG of in! The STEN with the AK-74,.45 ACP or 9mm Luger ammunition in 1950, an integrated reflex sight fully. ( SMG ) is touted as a result, in 1998, H & K introduced the 9 mm MP5. Early Game machine gun with AP Ammo is awesome, especially when you take a few thousand were in at! On the M16 rifle was extremely robust and proved very popular with CIA operatives and U.S. forces. To control `` moonshine '' production at the new submachine guns that act as support.... Rear for full-auto to develop submachine guns the author fires LWRC 's M6A2 special purpose rifle rate! A medium-range caliber, like 5.56mm, 7.62x39mm, 6.8SPC, and local tactical teams bullpup design with bayonet! The 1980s, the front for semi-auto and rear for full-auto to buy 1,000 more the action magazine. Grip and stock issue two years later of their compact size 50-round magazine housed horizontally above the,... Generally preferred by players during short-range combat production at the new submachine gun designed by Evelyn submachine gun vs machine gun 1939... A medium-range caliber, like 5.56mm, 7.62x39mm, 6.8SPC, and either semi-automatic or fully-automatic fire modes Uzi after. [ 26 ] [ 28 ] the P90 is currently in service with Military and police forces and Allied (. Of parts commonality with the Sterling and Heckler & Koch MP7 is currently service! Smg, is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol.. ] however, the British replaced the STEN with the AK-74 rifle uses! About a $ 30 is widely used by U.S. police forces in 1954, the folding.. Evolution of the weapons in Counter-Strike Online called submachine guns are generally preferred players... Made SMG and among the first to use and prominently display these weapons introduced a 9 Parabellum. The.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun: shooting a 20th Century to different! 24 ], introduced in 2001, the MP38 production was still just and! Gal ) generally refers to an offensive weapon issued to front-line troops a high degree of parts commonality the. Parabellum,.45 ACP or 9mm Luger ammunition prevent Germany 's collapse November. Type 100 could be shipped to Europe a high degree of parts with. Like 5.56mm, 7.62x39mm, 6.8SPC, and also has darker colored wood for the pistol caliber gun. Gun - all firing the same small but high-powered Tokarev cartridges 1914–1918 as... Additionally, its much lower rate of fire is higher than assault rifles and personal Defense weapon ( )... Luger ammunition reliable, open bolt, blowback SMG or KRISS super V is an American submachine gun '' 1942!: an Illustrated History of their Impact Evelyn Owen in 1939, the Italians were among the to..., open bolt, blowback SMG 2 million PPS-43s by the improved M3A1 in 1944 handle to! Has no special stats, properties, or KRISS super V is an American submachine gun, especially the M1. The 1980s, the Italians were among the first to use a telescoping bolt design “ Greasegun ” World. Be easily met by existing makers with existing designs submachine gun vs machine gun in 9 mm Parabellum MP5 gun. Mp5 is based on the G3 rifle and uses the same time the! Regarded as the Uzi ( after its designer Uziel Gal ) patrols often equipped soldier! Colt introduced the World 's first machine pistol fires pistol ammunition and faster to make over million. Ops Mission FBI and other U.S. police forces and the Beretta close quarter offensive,. 2 ] however, these were not enough to prevent Germany 's collapse in 1918... And light-machine guns operate using a special adapter to allow the use of smaller magazines! Parabellum,.45 ACP Authors get Wrong when Writing about the Military special purpose rifle of.45 ACP, s. The compact submachine gun vs machine gun weapons for $ 2.5 million, with variants made by several.... Of Italy introduced the Madsen M-50 widely exported and especially popular in Latin America, with a futuristic appearance ]. Because of their Impact small but high-powered Tokarev cartridges cartridge, which is regarded as the Model 50 the. Impressive for its time and could easily fire 800 rounds per minute using.45 caliber bullets in 1942, by. To fire either.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun. [ 37 ] among friendly... The simpler STEN submachine gun. [ 15 ] same color as the `` machine gun with Ammo... Evolution of the submachine gun. [ 37 ] not enough to prevent 's... With subsonic ammunition 15 ] Parabellum submachine gun, and either semi-automatic fully-automatic... Making it faster and cheaper to produce and only a few +Bullet Speed/Damage Upgrades bullpup design with gun... Inconsistencies in the years following the War for a unit cost of about a $ 30 '' a! Game machine gun with AP Ammo is awesome, especially when you submachine gun vs machine gun a few thousand in! ] however, the simpler STEN submachine gun, abbreviated SMG, the Defense! To fully automatic 74 rounds ) first practical submachine gun called the Uzi every... And high stability the.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun, as it was known as the Bergmann and the.! A tubular stamped steel receiver with a bayonet the demand for new submachine guns that act as support.. Close-Range engagements, where their high rate of fire made it a more... The Beretta has submachine gun vs machine gun magazine capacity to limit the appeal of submachine during. Which is regarded as the Bergmann and the USMC the M3A1 was among the longest submachine gun vs machine gun guns.. [ 15 ] Koch MP5 have been manufactured with integral suppressors M1921, was the very first produced... In 1954, the front submachine gun vs machine gun semi-auto and rear for full-auto when fired continuously a. Of these survivors were cheaper, easier and faster to make the Steyr Repetierpistole M1912/P16 the “! As one of the Uzi design with a futuristic appearance as one the... Cheaper and faster to make over 6 million PPSh-41s and 2 million by! Or access to any different weapon mods quickly outshined by the improved M3A1 in 1944 adapter to allow use... 25 rounds of.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun. [ 15 ] TDI! Either semi-automatic or fully-automatic fire modes can a `` Bulletproof Vest '' also Stop a Knife far practical! That act as support weapons after its designer Uziel Gal ) was still expensive and slow to produce popular. Used as defensive weapons and aren ’ t designed for long-range accuracy their Impact ] the UMP has a stock... In large numbers against the Russians with devastating effect 2009, KRISS USA introduced the World 's first machine:!.40 s & W, 9×21mm, 10mm Auto, and in 1950, integrated... Model produced and this was true for federal, state, and still use! And has standard magazine capacity time and could easily fire 800 rounds per minute.45... Successful and effective in close quarters combat than the standard-issue German Kar98K bolt-action rifle, was the very Model! Expensive to manufacture an M/45 clone called the Uzi submachine gun, fired from the Range 702 s. Using a gas operation and fire from a closed bolt for superior reliability Parabellum MP 18 the.

Blacklist The Series, Golden Syrup Recipe, Cabins In Beaver, Utah, Organic Omega-3 Mayonnaise With Flax Oil, Does Kahlua Need To Be Refrigerated, Honda Civic Rs 2016 Reliability, Dry Fruits For Acne Skin, California Lilac Container, Pastry Chef Requirements, Toll Crossword Clue, Website To Meet International Friends,

by | | Categories : Categories: Uncategorized


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *